Sustainable using of Pamir High - Mountain Natural Rresources
Pamir Experimental Agricultural Station, TAJIKISTAN
Pamir mountains are among the world's highest mountains? And since Victorian times they have been known as the "Roof of the world", presumable a translation from the Persian . To the north they join the Tin Shan mountains along the Alay valley of Kyrgyzzstan. To the south they join the Hindu Kush mountains along the Wakhan Coridor in Afganistan and Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan . To the east they may end on the Chinese border or extend to the range that includes Kongur Tagh which is sometimes included in the Kunlun mountains.
Pamir is characterized as a region with drought and cold climate, high intensity of solar insulation, high level of ultraviolet radiation. The average duration of Sun radiance equal to 2600-3000 hour per the year. The average January temperature until to 2000m.above the sea level is equal to +8C and average temperature in Jule - +25C
These conditions caused specific physiological and biological peculiarity of plants and animals. Therefore, the economical development and agricultural farming needs considering of natural-climatic factor's of high-mountains.
Pamir have very few land resources for agriculture. For the agricultural reason their are available only 711.1 thousand ha, or 22.6 % from all of land area. On the view of natural and climatic conditions Pamir divided to 2 part: 1. East, 2. West Pamir . The West Pamir condition's are comfortable fro development of horticulture, including medicine plants and fruit species. In the West Pamir districts due to insufficient land resources it is necessary seaching of possibility for slope gardening. The area, which is available for slope gardening, is equal to 13 thousand ha. The slope gardening allowed to expand area for this reason and planting of walnut's. This approach need spend only financial resources for irrigation system, because the human resources are in enough amount.
One if the important aspect of economically development in this conditions ( insufficient land resources ) is gaining of two crops of plantation's after the harvesting of winter wheat. The large possibility their exist for potato's farming. Recently average productivity of potato is equal to 200 center per ha, however this indicator can increase till to 500center per ha.
In the East Pamir conditions, where climatic factor's are more severity, it is possible only developing of animal husbandry. Recently the main attention devoted to developing of yaks farming. The meat of yak's in high-mountain conditions are considered as a ecological pure food products.
Thus, on the basis of gathering scientific materials and the experience of local population, also specific climate conditions it is necessary:
1.For West Pamir regions ( 1000-1800 m.above the sea level )- working out of methods of gaining of two crops.
2.For middle- located regions (1800 - 2500 m.a.s.l)- developing of gardening, especially slope gardening, potato crop's, greenhouse vegetables, etc.
3.For high East Pamir ( 2500-4000 m.a.s.l )- developing of yak's production and gaining of more productive hybrids.